POSIX permissions include the execute permission, which allows the file to be executed as a program. The permission can be set for each of the three classes: user, group, and others. So, for example, you can have a file that is executable only by its owning user.
Since December, several of my open source packages have been “lifted” on Tidelift. This means that Tidelift are paying me a portion of their subscription fee for continued, standardized maintenance of these packages. These funds are very appreciated, so thanks to Tidelift subscribers .
Sometimes error reporting loses details, and you don’t know where an error message comes from. In such cases, I have often found that the fastest way to track down the source is to search through the project and its virtualenv.
pre-commit uses Git’s hook system to run tools when you commit. Unfortunately, Git doesn’t run any hooks when making a commit during a rebase. This can lead to you rebasing a branch and not realizing some code needs fixing, at least not until your CI system runs pre-commit (say, with pre-commit.ci).